Field Guide to Transfer of Development Rights (TDRs)
(Updated March 2015)
Transfer of development rights (TDR) is one “smart growth” tool used to manage land development. TDR is the exchange of zoning privileges from areas with low population needs, such as farmland, to areas of high population needs, such as downtown areas. These transfers allow for the preservation of open spaces and historic landmarks, while allowing urban areas to expand and increase in density. This field guide details the basics of TDRs, processes used for creating successful TDR programs, case studies, and more. (K. Stockert, Information & Web Content Specialist)
Q - ProQuest articles available for NAR members only. Password can be found on the ProQuest/Find Articles page.
The ABCs of TDRs
Using Smart Growth Strategies to Create More Resilient Communities in the Washington, D.C. Region, (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Nov. 2013).
Smart Growth Smart Energy Toolkit, (Commonwealth of Massachusetts, n.d.).
Smart Growth Program Toolkit, (National Association of REALTORS®, May 2012).
Transfer of Development Rights Fact Sheet, (Ohio State University, n.d.)
EPA Local Climate and Energy Program Webcast Script, (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Mar. 31, 2010).
Environmental Benefits of Smart Growth, (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, n.d.).
The Impact of Local Supporters on Smart Growth Policy Adoption, (Journal of the American Planning Association, Summer 2009). Q
Smart Growth, (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, n.d.).
Transfer of Development Rights in U.S. Communities: Evaluating Program Design, Implementation, and Outcomes, (Resources for the Future, Sept. 2007).
TDR 101, (Washington Business Journal, Aug. 17, 2007).
Preserving property: Transfer of development rights saves natural and historic sites, (Commercial Investment Real Estate, Mar./Apr. 2006).
TDR Case Studies
TDR Exchange, (Tahoe Regional Planning Agency, n.d.).
County Plans New Transfer of Development Rights Program, (McClatchy—Tribune Business News, Dec. 2013). Q
N.J. Program Has Been Preserving Farmland for 30 Years, (McClatchy—Tribune Business News, Oct. 2013). Q
New York Questions Zoning, Other Planning Tools, (Planning, Jan. 2012). Q
Putting Smart Growth to Work in Rural Communities, (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, n.d.).
What Makes Transfer of Development Rights Work?: Success Factors from Research and Practice, (Journal of the American Planning Association, Winter 2009). Q
Reworking Suburbia: Accommodating Second-Generation Growth in White Flint, MD, USA, (Institute of Transportation Engineers, Sept. 2009). Q
Land Use Initiative Memo Database (see issue: Transferable Development Rights), (National Association of REALTORS®).
Transfer of development rights (TDR) program, King County, Washington, (KingCounty.gov, 2009).
Association Fails to Overturn Town's Moratorium, (Wisconsin Association of REALTORS® v. Town of West Point, 2008).
Making markets for development rights work: what determines demand?, (Resources for the Future, Oct. 2005).
Award & Grant Opportunities
Some federal, state, and local government agencies offer grants and funding for smart growth initiatives. Below are a few examples of such opportunities.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Award for Smart Growth Achievement, (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency).
2010 Adirondack Park Community Smart Growth Grant Program, (New York State Department of Environmental Conservation).
Research on Your Own
To search for the most recent articles on mergers and acquisitions, login to NAR's ProQuest account and enter subject terms such as:
- Enter into ProQuest text box as SU(smart growth)
Property transfers and Community Development
- Enter into ProQuest text box as su(community development) AND ("transfer development rights" OR "transfer of development rights" OR tdr)
Books, eBooks & Other Resources
The following eBooks and digital audiobooks are available to NAR members:
Managing Growth in America’s Communities (Adobe ePub, Kindle)
Land Use Law for Sustainable Development (Adobe ePub)
Books, Videos, Research Reports & More
The resources below are available for loan through Information Central. Up to three books, tapes, CDs and/or DVDs can be borrowed for 30 days from the Library for a nominal fee of $10. Call Information Central at 800-874-6500 for assistance.
Beyond takings and givings: Saving natural areas, farmland, and historic landmarks with transfer of development rights and density charges, (Arje Press, 2003). NAC 1565 P95b
Putting Transfer of Development Rights to Work in California, (Solano Press, 1993). NAC 1565 P95
Field Guides & More
These field guides and other resources in the Virtual Library may also be of interest:
Have an Idea for a New Field Guide?
Click here to send us your suggestions.
The inclusion of links on this field guide does not imply endorsement by the National Association of REALTORS®. NAR makes no representations about whether the content of any external sites which may be linked in this field guide complies with state or federal laws or regulations or with applicable NAR policies. These links are provided for your convenience only and you rely on them at your own risk.